Legal Analysis of Current Indonesia's Marine Protected Areas Development

Adrian Nugraha


This paper aims to conduct a legal analysis of the development of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in Indonesia. This article discusses the international legal framework and national legislation related to MPAs, progress and control, and problems in developing MPAs in Indonesia and its solutions. The international legal frameworks discussed include the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982, the Convention on Biological Diversity 1992, and Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries 1995. Subsequently, the Indonesian legislation analyzed includes the Act on Conservation of Living Resources and their Ecosystems, the Act concerning Fisheries, the Act concerning the Management of Coastal Areas and Small Islands, and the Act on Marine Affairs. The progress and control of the establishment of MPAs in Indonesia have now reached the target area of more than twenty million hectares. Apart from the success of these achievements, Indonesia also has problems in developing MPAs. Current problems related to MPA development include dualism of permits, conflicts over zoning and regional spatial planning, multiple interpretations of penal sanctions, and overlapping management authorities between government agencies. The solutions offered to solve these problems include synchronizing marine tourism permits, integrating zoning and spatial plans into one regional government regulation, imposing the most severe criminal sanctions for perpetrators of destroying marine ecosystems, and transfer of full authority over the management of seven marine protected areas to the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries.


Coastal Areas; Ecosys-tem; Indonesia; Marine Protected Areas.

Full Text:



Abelson, A., P. A. Nelson, G. J. Edgar, N. Shashar, D. C. Reed, J. Belmaker, and others, ‘Expanding Marine Protected Areas to Include Degraded Coral Reefs’, Conservation Biology, 30 (2016), 1182–91

Agardy, Tundi S., Marine Protected Areas and Ocean Conservation, 1st edn (California: Academic Press, 1997)

Alder, N., N.A. Sloan, and H. Uktolseya, ‘Advances in Marine Protected Area Management in Indonesia: 1988-1993’, Ocean and Coastal Management, 25 (1994), 63–75

Brotosusilo, Agus, I. Wayan Agus Apriana, Afrizal Agung Satria, and Trisasono Jokopitoyo, ‘Littoral and Coastal Management in Supporting Maritime Security for Realizing Indonesia as World Maritime Axis’, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 30 (2016)

Center, LIPI Oceanography Research, ‘Indonesian Coral Reef Damage Reaches 35.15 Percent’, 2017 [accessed 20 September 2020]

Coll, Marta, Simone Libralato, Tony J. Pitcher, Cosimo Solidoro, and Sergi Tudela, ‘Sustainability Implications of Honouring the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries’, Global Environmental Change, 23 (2013), 157–66

Dunn, Daniel C., Jeff Ardron, Nicholas Bax, Patricio Bernal, Jesse Cleary, Ian Cresswell, and others, ‘The Convention on Biological Diversity’s Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas: Origins, Development, and Current Status’, Marine Policy, 49 (2014), 137–45

Edinger, Evan N., Jamaluddìn Jompa, Gino V. Limmon, Wisnu Widjatmoko, and Michael J. Risk, ‘Reef Degradation and Coral Biodiversity in Indonesia: Effects of Land-Based Pollution, Destructive Fishing Practices and Changes Over Time’, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 36 (1998), 617–30

Ferrol-Schulte, Daniella, Philipp Gorris, Wasistini Baitoningsih, Dedi S. Adhuri, and Sebastian C.A. Ferse, ‘Coastal Livelihood Vulnerability to Marine Resource Degradation: A Review of the Indonesian National Coastal and Marine Policy Framework’, Marine Policy, 52 (2015), 163–71

Fisheries, Ministry of Marine Affairs and, Annual Report of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries Republic of Indonesia 2017 (Jakarta, 2017)

Funds, Indonesia Climate Change Trust, ‘Nine Years to Commemorate World Coral Reef Day, What Are the Conditions in Indonesia?’, 2020 [accessed 20 September 2020]

Glaser, Marion, Wasistini Baitoningsih, Sebastian C.A. Ferse, Muhammad Neil, and Rio Deswandi, ‘Whose Sustainability? Top-Down Participation and Emergent Rules in Marine Protected Area Management in Indonesia’, Marine Policy, 34 (2010), 1215–25

Halik, Abdul, Marco Verweij, and Achim Schlüter, ‘How Marine Protected Areas Are Governed : A Cultural Theory Perspective’, Sustainability, 10 (2018), 1–23

Hamdani, Baso, ‘Threats, Challenges and Opportunities to Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle Area: A Case Study of Indonesia Sea.’ (World Maritime university, 2018)

Honda, Kentaro, Yohei Nakamura, Masahiro Nakaoka, Wilfredo H. Uy, and Miguel D. Fortes, ‘Habitat Use by Fishes in Coral Reefs, Seagrass Beds and Mangrove Habitats in the Philippines’, PLoS ONE, 8 (2013), 1–10

Kinseng, Rilus A., Fredian Tonny Nasdian, Anna Fatchiya, Amir Mahmud, and Richard J. Stanford, ‘Marine-Tourism Development on A Small Island in Indonesia: Blessing or Curse?’, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 23 (2018), 1062–72

Lam, Mimi E., and Tony J. Pitcher, ‘The Ethical Dimensions of Fisheries’, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 4 (2012), 364–73

Magris, Rafael A., Robert L. Pressey, Morena Mills, Daniele A. Vila-Nova, and Sergio Floeter, ‘Integrated Conservation Planning for Coral Reefs: Designing Cnservation Zones for Multiple Conservation Objectives in Spatial Prioritisation’, Global Ecology and Conservation, 11 (2017), 53–68

MMAF, Information on Indonesia’s Marine Protected Areas 2013, 1st edn (Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, 2013)

———, ‘The History of Indonesian Marine Protected Area (MPA) Development’, 2012 [accessed 3 July 2020]

Moberg, Fredrik, and Carl Folke, ‘Ecological Goods and Services of Coral Reef Ecosystems’, Ecological Economics, 29 (1999), 215–33

Novriyanto, Joni T Wibowo, Wiwin Iskandar, Gail Campbell, Matthew Linkie, Joni T Wibowo, and others, ‘Linking Coastal Community Livelihoods to Marine Conservation in Aceh, Indonesia’, Oryx, 46 (2012)

Nurhidayah, Laely, ‘Marine Biodiversity Laws in Indonesia and Australia: Mapping Similarities and Differences’, Asia Pacific Journal of Environmental Law, 21 (2018), 50–76

Sahri, Achmad, Putu Liza Kusuma Mustika, Hadi Yoga Dewanto, and Albertinka J. Murk, ‘A Critical Review of Marine Mammal Governance and Protection in Indonesia’, Marine Policy, 117 (2020), 1–16

De Santo, Elizabeth M., ‘Missing Marine Protected Area (MPA) Targets: How the Push for Quantity Over Quality Undermines Sustainability and Social Justice’, Journal of Environmental Management, 124 (2013), 137–46

Srinivasan, U. Thara, William W.L. Cheung, Reg Watson, and U. Rashid Sumaila, ‘Food Security Implications of Global Marine Catch Losses Due to Overfishing’, Journal of Bioeconomics, 12 (2010), 183–200

Statistics, Central Bureau of, Statistics of Marine and Coastal Reosurces 2018 (Jakarta, 2018)

Tomascik, Tomas, The Ecology of the Indonesian Seas, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997)

UNEP-WCMC, IUCN, and NGS, ‘Global Coverage’, Protected Planet, 2020 [accessed 3 July 2020]

Usmawadi, ‘Implementation of the UNCLOS 1982 in Utilization of Highly Migratory Species By Indonesia’, Sriwijaya Law Review, 4 (2020), 124–35

White, Alan T, Porfirio M Aliño, Annick Cros, Ahmad Fatan, Alison L Green, Shwu Jiau Teoh, and others, ‘Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle : Progress , Issues , and Options’, Coastal Management, 42 (2014), 37–41

Yulianto, Irfan, Tasrif Kartawijaya, and Stuart Campbell, ‘The Effectiveness of Karimunjawa National Park’, in Proceeding of International Symposium on Small Islands and Coral Reefs, ed. by Jamaluddin Jompa (Ambon, 2010), pp. 167–78



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Sriwijaya Law Review (SLRev) ISSN: 2541-5298 | e-ISSN: 2541-6464 is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

SLRev has been indexed by:
View full indexing services
SLRev Member of :                                    Plagiarism Detection by: